Anandamide – An endocannabinoid naturally produced by the body. Also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA), it is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of arachidonic acid, an essential omega-6 fatty acid. The name is taken from the Sanskrit word ananda, which means “bliss”. Anadamide’s ability to bind to CB1 and CB2 receptors can profoundly impact many physiological functions.
Aerial Parts – The aerial parts of a plant are those which are completely exposed in air, including leaves, flowers, and stems. We use the aerial parts of the hemp plant, clearing the flowers and leaves from the larger stalks. The most beneficial nutrients such as cannabinoids and terpenes form in trichomes on the flowers and to a lesser extent the leaves.
Broad Spectrum – Cannabis-based products are considered broad spectrum if they contain an array of of cannabinoids and terpenes, however, do not include the entire spectrum of potential nutrients derived from the plant. In some cases, it may be that the extraction method does not remove all of the available compounds. In other cases, individual cannabinoids and terpenes may be isolated and then recombined in the desired ratio.
Cannabidiol – CBD stands for cannabidiol, one of the most abundant cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant that has been well studied for its effect on human health.
Cannabinoids – A class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors and include those produced in the body as well as by plants (primarily cannabis plants). Over a hundred different cannabinoids have been identified, but the most prevalent and well known include: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabinol (CBN).
Cannabis – A plant belonging to the cannabaceae family, which also includes hops and hackberry, of the genus cannabis sativa l. There are three species of cannabis sativa l: sativa, indica, and ruderalis. Within these three species there are several varieties, some which are considered to be “marijuana” because they produce higher amounts of THC and some which are considered “hemp” because they produce lower amounts of THC.
CBD Oil – Can refer to any kind of oil that contains CBD, including CBD derived from either marijuana or hemp and either CBD isolate or CBD along with a broad or full spectrum of other beneficial compounds.
COA – A Certificate of Analysis (COA) is a report showing test results from a lab that verify the cannabinoid content of a product, and often includes a terpene profile as well as presence of microbes, pesticides, and heavy metals. It is advisable to obtain a COA for the lot number listed on your product to verify that it is of high quality. Ours are available here: https://functionalremedies.com/certificate-of-analysis/
Concentrate – A concentrate is a form of substance which has had the majority of its base component removed. Any product derived from a cannabis flower that is processed into a concentrated form. Our Functional Remedies hemp oils are never from concentrate!
Decarboxylation – A chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group. In the cannabis plant, cannabinoids are found in their acidic forms (CBDa, THCa) rather than the active form (CBD, THC) which can be better utilized by the body. Exposure to heat, oxygen, and time causes decarboxylation and converts the compounds to the active form.
Distillate – Anything formed by the process of purifying a liquid by successive evaporation and condensation. A cannabis concentrate that is exposed to vacuum pressure, steam, and heat to manipulate boiling points so that volatile compounds can be fractioned individually or simultaneously for collection. We do not use distillate in any of our hemp products.
Efficacious – Successful in producing a desired or intended result; effective.
Endocannabinoid – Cannabinoids that are produced naturally in the body, endocannabinoids are defined as the endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2).
EndoCannabinoid System (ECS) – A biological system composed primarily of endocannabinoids [the endogenous arachidonate-based lipids, anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)] that bind to cannabinoid receptors, the enzymes that synthesize and degrade the endocannabinoids [such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL)], and the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, two G protein-coupled receptors that are located in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
EndoCannabinoid Deficiency Syndrome – Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD) is a medical theory that proposes that an individual is not producing enough essential endocannabinoids to maintain proper health, and that this is potentially the underlying pathophysiology of several conditions including migraines, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome.
Entourage Effect – The Entourage Effect refers to the combined effect of the cannabinoids, terpenes and other beneficial compounds in the plant working together in synergy. The combined effect of all the phytonutrients is greater than the sum of the individual effects. Only a full spectrum hemp oil can deliver a complete entourage effect.
Enzyme – A substance produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction. Enzymes in the cannabis plant convert CBGa into CBDa as the plant matures. Enzymes in the body break down both endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids.
Extract – To remove or take out. The beneficial nutrients in the hemp plant are removed and converted into a form that makes them bioavailable and consumable.
Extraction Method – The process used to remove the beneficial compounds from the hemp plant. There are a variety of methods that can be employed, common methods utilize CO2, ethanol, propane, butane, or hexane. We infuse the oil directly with our whole plant material in a much more gentle process that reflects more of the true nature of the plant.
Flavonoids – Flavonoids are a group of natural substances found in fruits, vegetables, grains, bark, roots, stems, teas, and wine. They play a variety of biological roles in plants, including providing flavor and aroma as well as attracting pollinators. They are antioxidants and have many health benefits.
Full-Spectrum – A full-spectrum hemp extract describes a product with the entire array of cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant, plus the additional range of beneficial compounds like terpenes, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. It utilizes a much larger part of the plant versus isolate products that single out only one compound of the cannabis plant, such as CBD.
Hemp – Legally, any cannabis sativa l. variety that produces less than 0.3% THC on a dry weight basis. Functionally, hemp varieties also have a multitude of other uses when grown for seed or fiber rather than cannabinoid content.
Hemp Oil – Refers to extractions from the aerial plant parts of the hemp plant and can contain a variety of cannabinoids, terpenes, and beneficial nutrients, especially CBD, and should not be confused with hemp seed oil.
Hemp Seed Oil – An oil made from cold pressing only the seeds of the hemp plant that does not contain any cannabinoids. Hemp seed oil is beneficial for general health due to its ideal ratio of omega-3 fatty acids to omega-6 fatty acids, which are responsible in part for proper cell, muscle, and organ function.
Homeostasis – The ability of an organism or environment to maintain a state of internal balance and physical wellbeing in spite of changes or outside factors.
Isolate – When one singular compound, such as CBD, is filtered out of a cannabis concentrate. A pure CBD isolate will appear as a white powder that can then be added into oils or products. One singular isolated compound will not have the benefit of the entourage effect.
Lipid – A lipid is chemically defined as a substance that is insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform. Lipids are an important component of living cells. Together with carbohydrates and proteins, lipids are the main constituents of plant and animal cells. Digestive enzymes break down lipids in the body so that they can be transported to the liver and other tissues.
Lipophylic – Tending to combine with or dissolve in lipids or fats. Cannabinoids and beneficials from the cannabis plant are lipophylic, that’s why they are often added to a carrier oil or taken with a meal rich in healthy fats. It’s also why our unique process of infusing the oil directly with the whole plant works so well.
MCT oil – MCT stands for Medium Chain Triglyceride, meaning it has 6-8 carbon molecules compared to Long Chain which have 10-12 carbon molecules and take longer to metabolize. Because the MCTs are easier to absorb they get used by the body for energy rather than stored as fat and have been touted as a superfood.
Omega Fatty Acids – A group of dietary polyunsaturated fats that cannot be manufactured by the body. They play many important roles in the body including supporting heart health, mental health, reducing weight, decreasing liver weight, and so forth. The fats are used primarily for energy. It is important to maintain the correct balance of omega 3, omega 6, and omega 9 fatty acids.
Phytocannabinoids – Cannabinoids produced within a plant such as cannabis and also found in a few other species such as echinacea, radula, black pepper, and even chocolate (cocoa).
Phytonutrient – a substance found in certain plants which is believed to be beneficial to human health and help prevent various diseases.
Polyphenols – A type of chemical naturally produced in hemp plants that may protect against some common health problems and possibly certain effects of aging.
Single Origin – The term single origin is essentially as it sounds – it means that the hemp used to make the hemp oil comes from one place only, usually from a certain region or country. Functional Remedies only uses hemp grown on our own sustainable farm here in Colorado.
Strain – In botany, the term strain refers to variations found within plant cultivars. Through careful breeding, different strains or varieties of cannabis are created to exhibit particular desired traits, such as producing more CBD, or less THC, or higher yields, or better fiber, etc.
Terpenes – The primary constituent of many essential oils found in plants like cannabis. Terpenes are what give cannabis and other plants their distinct smell and flavor. They have many known health benefits and play an important role in the entourage effect.
THC – Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis. THC is the principal psychotoxic constituent of cannabis and known for causing the feeling that some refer to as “high” or “stoned”.
Vertically Integrated – This is when a company controls more than one stage of the supply chain. In the production of a hemp oil product, the stages are: farming/growing the hemp plants, extracting the beneficials from the hemp, formulating and packaging finished products, and then sales/marketing. To be truly and completely vertically integrated, the hemp company will own its own farm and its own extraction lab, as well as create, package, and sell its own finished products.
Whole Plant – Refers to the fact that the final product will contain all of the beneficial components exactly as they are found in the natural plant. A whole plant, full spectrum hemp oil will offer a true entourage effect and greater benefit than one with compounds that have been isolated or manipulated.